Infra Red Radiations
- Radiation with wave length of 750 – 400000 nm
- Produce heat when they absorbed by the body tissues
Two types (wave length)
Short infra red(wave length is 750-1500 nm)
long infra red(wavelength above 1500 nm)
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS Of Infra Red
1. Temperature : produces heat in the body tissues
Increase in local temperature occur due to heat
If applied for longer duration there may be increase in general body temperature.
2. Metabolism : is the collective process by which living status of the tissues or body is maintained
This may occur as per the Van’t Hoff’s statement. It states that any chemical change capable of being accelerated by heat is accelerated by rise in temperature.
3. Blood supply: increases the local blood supply
It may occur due to the direct effect of heat on the vessels in term of vasodilatation
Due to increase in vasodilatation there is increase in the lumen of vessels which leads to increased blood supply
4. Effects on nerves : mild heating may reduce the excitability of the nerves especially sensory nerves.
5. Muscle relaxation : rise in temperature induces relaxation of muscles and increase their efficacy of action. The muscle contract and relax very easily but strength of contraction is unaffected
6. Tissue damage : excessive heating may cause the damage to the tissues in form of coagulation or thermal burns.
7. Blood pressure : prolonged application can reduce blood pressure. This happens due to the generalized vasodilatation and reduction in viscosity of the blood
8. Sweating : increase in local and general temperature can cause increased sweating either local region or generalized depending on the extent of heating.
THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS Of Infra Red
1. Pain relief:
May occur due to the sedative effect on sensory nerves, due to resolution in inflammation and due to relief of underlying muscle spasm.
2. Muscle spasm:
Induces muscle relaxation by sedative effect on the nerve, increased blood circulation and removal of metabolites.
3. Joint stiffness:
Minimize the joint stiffness due to increased extensibility of connective tissue as a result of increase in local temperature and due to relief of pain, spasm and inflammation
4. Inflammation :
Increase in blood supply increases white blood cells, antibodies and other essentials nutritive material
Increase in these material may help in resolution of inflammation
5. Musculo skeletal trauma:
Accelerates the healing by increasing the amount of nutritive material required for healing following musculoskeletal trauma
Depth of penetration :
Maximum penetration is 3cm
May vary from 0.1 to few centimeter
Non luminous generator has less penetration than luminous generator.
LUMINOUS GENERATORS (produces light & heat)
Equipped w/ruby colored Infra-Red bulbs w/thick protective lens and optical system which produces an 18″ beam pattern
NON-LUMINOUS GENERATOR (produces only radiant heat )Each Infra-red heat lamp consists of ceramic heaters that change color from coral to gray when energized.
No visible light produced.
INDICATIONS Of Infra Red
Low back pain,
Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,
Sprains, strains, muscle tear, tendon tear, capsulitis, tendinitis,
Traumatic arthritis and
CONTRAINDICATIONS Of Infra Red
Advanced cardiac disease
Non inflammatory edema
DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS Of Infra Red
1. Burns: Superficial burns as a red patch is seen on the skin. Caused by
Moving nearer to the lamp
Fall asleep during the treatment
Defective skin sensation
2. Electric Shock: Touching exposed parts of the machine or the live wire.
3. Gangrene: If applied to parts with defective blood supply and not to be applied
4. Head Ache: During the hot weather due to dehydration, so advised to take plenty of water
5. Faintness: Fall of BP cause hypoxia of brain and faintness, sudden change of position avoided
6. Injury To The Eye: May cause cataracts and eyes should be protected.
TECHNIQUES OF APPLICATION
1. PREPARATION OF THE APPARATUS:
Choice of apparatus:
Acute inflammation or recent injuries – NON LUMINOUS GENERATOR (Sedative effect)
Chronic conditions – LUMINOUS GENERATOR (Counter irritation effect)
Check and test the apparatus:
To ensure the working condition of the apparatus.
2. PREPRARTION OF THE PATIENT:
Explanation about the treatment
Expose the part
Position the patient
Check the local contra indications
Check the skin sensation
3. ARRANGMENTS OF LAMP:
Position the lamp so that the part to be treated is right angle, with a distance of 50 to 75 cm between the patient and the lamp.
4. DURATION OF TREATMENT:
For chronic conditions:
upto 20 minutes