Biofeedback Working Principle The technique that is use to measure, process and feedback some information from which the people are unaware by means of auditory or visual signals with the help of electronic instruments is termed as biofeedback.
Biofeedback Working Principle:
A Reward model is usually used with these biofeedback techniques. According to this, positive reinforcement occurs in the patients with the generation of motor activity.
Application Of Biofeedback:
Instruments for biofeedback are designed in such a way that they record the physiological events and then quantify these events and after that show the information in some meaning full form. Some examples of this biofeedback are given below:
- Peripheral skin temperature in fahrenheit measures the status of the blood vessels, As when the vessels dilate, more blood enters the part and in turn the temperature of the part increase.
- Finger photo transmission: this is a method for measuring peripheral vasoconstriction by means of a photo plethysmograph. Light is passed through a finger or toe, reflrct off a bone and after that passing back through soft tissues, it is sensed by a sensor inserted in an instrument. Blood volume changes and pulse is detected .
- Activity of sweat gland can be measured by means of galvanic skin response (GSR). The measurement of skin conductance is beneficial for the assessment of the psycho physiologic arousal and used for lie detection.
- EMG biofeedback: Most important of all biofeedback modalities. with the contraction of muscles, electrochemical changes occur. The changes in the electrolytes are recorded by electrodes placed near the muscle fibers.
EMG is measured visually by an oscilloscope, usually as a line travelling across the monitor, a light that on and off and a bar graph that alters the dimensions. Some forms of meter are also present in biofeedback units. These meters can be either analogue or digital.
In some biofeedback units, the activity is recorded and displayed by an audio signal. Therefore, after the detection of the activity, some tone, buzz, beep or click is heard. Increase in the audio shows an increase in yhe muscle activity and vice versa.
Signals sensitivity can be set manually. If high gain is selected, it will be highly sensitive for the detection of muscle activity. It can be set as 1, 10,100 uV. 1uV detects small amount of activity occurring in the muscle thus its signals sensitivity is high. High sensitivity is use full for relaxation while low is use full for muscle reeducation.
Clinical Uses Of Biofeedback:
- Peripheral nerve injuries
- Spinal cord injuries
- Postural control
- Muscle strengthening
- Function reeducation
- Promotion of relaxation
Biofeedback Working Principle Use in Stressed Condition:
In these conditions, biofeedback is very use full for the promotion of relaxation. These conditions are:
- Essential hypertension
- Cardiac arrhythmias
- Raynuad’s disease
- Tension headache
Contraindication of Biofeedback Working Principle:
Muscular problems in which contraction can cause further deterioration, biofeedback is contraindicated.
Some other contraindication include:
- Different conditions of skin like eczema, dermatitis.
- Patient is allergic to the electrode or contact material (tape/gel).
- Patient who do not give any response to the therapist’s instructions.
- Patient with pace makers can be affected indirectly by electromagnetic fields.